An electronic poster session will be hosted from 5 – 7 p.m. on Wednesday, October 23 outside the Crossroads Ballroom near the Evening Reception.
Implementing a Better Nutritional Grouping Strategy in Commercial Dairy Farms
Presenter: Jorge A. Barrientos-Blanco
My research focuses on developing decision-making tools to improve feeding precision. During my master program at the Department of Diary Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison I worked on improving nutritional accuracy and economics in dairy farm feeding management by implementing nutritional grouping strategy. Currently, as graduate student at the Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, I have been working on developing a tool to help dairy farmers on improving forage sampling practices and monitoring feed quality variability.
Randy D. Shaver, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Victor E. Cabrera, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
The objective of this study was to develop a model application that facilitates the implementation nutritional grouping strategy (NGs) in commercial dairy farms. Seventy-eight days (June-August 2017) of data from lactating cows from a commercial Wisconsin dairy farm were used for the study. Lactating cows (N=1898±115) are weekly regrouped in 14 pens according to lactation, days in milk (DIM), or a combination of both for which 8 diets are provided. Diets are seldom reformulated and nutritional requirements are not factored to allocate cows to pens. The same 14 pens were used to simulate the implementation of NGs following closely current farm criteria, but also including nutritional requirements (net energy (NE) and metabolizable protein (MP)), and milk yield in an attempt to generate more homogenous groups of cows for improved diet accuracy. The goal was to implement a continuous weekly system of cows’ pen allocation and diet reformulation. The NE and MP requirements from the NGs where used to formulate the diets with a commercial software using the same feed ingredients and ingredients’ prices as used by the farm. Diet MP and NE density were adjusted to the nutritional group requirements. Milk yield, MP and NE requirements, diet costs, and diet accuracy index (DAI) were used to compare actual farm grouping strategy (FGs) vs. NGs. Results indicate that NGs improves nutritional accuracy of the diets related to better diet nutrients allocation among groups. Therefore, the diet cost of NGs decreased for low nutritional requirements and increased for high nutritional requirements groups compared with current farm groups. The cost of feeding lactating cows in the farm was $1,197.33 per cow per year, whereas this could be decreased to $1,179.12 per cow per year using NGs, which results in $18.21 on diet cost savings per cow per year.
Feeding Rumen-Protected Choline to Prepartum Holstein Cows in Negative Energy Balance Increases Circulating Lipoprotein Phosphatidylcholine and Triglyceride Levels while Preventing Hepatic Triglyceride Accrual
Presenter: William Myers
William is a PhD. student in Dr Joseph. McFadden's laboratory at Cornell University studying lipid metabolism and liver function in dairy cows transitioning from gestation to lactation. He is originally from Morgantown, West Virginia and plans on working in industry following graduation. William is passionate about sustainable agriculture, feeding a world population of 10 billion by 2050, and the outdoors.
William A. Myers, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Joseph W. McFadden, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
M. G. Zenobi, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
B. A. Barton, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY 10958
C. R. Staples, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Rumen-protected choline (RPC) supplementation may increase hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis to promote triglyceride (TG) secretion within very-low density proteins. To assess whether RPC enhances lipoprotein PC and TG levels in dairy cows, forty-one pregnant, non-lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were fed a RPC (ReaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) that provided 0 (control), 6.5, 12.9, 19.4, and 25.8 g/d of choline ions, respectively. Diets were fed to exceed nutrient requirements for 5 d, then cows were restricted to consume ~31% of their net energy requirements for 9 d. Preprandial plasma and liver were collected on d 9 of feed restriction. Plasma TG-rich and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions were isolated using liquid chromatography. Lipoprotein fraction total TG, cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were measured. Lipoprotein fraction and liver lipids were processed for lipidomics. Statistical analyses were done using the Mixed procedure of SAS. Birth weight of the calves and number of days prepartum at enrollment were covariates. Normalized omic data were natural log transformed. A significant linear increase (P < 0.01) in TG-rich lipoprotein total TG levels was observed with choline ion supplementation. Likewise, RPC linearly increased TG levels within LDL fractions (P = 0.02). Total phospholipid levels tended to be modified by treatment (quadratic, P = 0.09). Majority of PC within the TG-rich lipoprotein fraction increased linearly with increasing RPC (37 out of 55 PC; e.g. PC 38:5; P < 0.01). A similar linear outcome was observed for TG-rich lipoprotein TG (106 out of 317 TG; P < 0.05). In LDL, RPC increased PC (0 vs rest; 25 out of 64 PC; e.g. PC 38:3; P < 0.05); however, TG was not overtly modified. In liver, RPC increased PC (0 vs. rest; 40 out of 57 PC; P < 0.05). Hepatic TG were lowered by RPC (0 vs. rest; 17.5 vs. 13.6% of tissue DM; P < 0.05). Our data support the likelihood that RPC increased hepatic PC synthesis and lipoprotein secretion to prevent liver TG accrual in dairy cows.
Effects of Abomasal Infusions of Fatty Acids and One-carbon Donors on Fatty Acid Profiles and Digestibility in Lactating Cows
Presenter: J. Eduardo Rico
Eduardo Rico is a Postdoctoral Associate at Cornell University. Focused primarily in nutritional science, his experience includes applied work in the feed industry and research activities in the United states during the past 8 years. Eduardo pursued his graduate studies at Michigan State University and West Virginia University. Currently ate Cornell university, is investigating the potential of dietary manipulations to modulate animal metabolism, health and production performance. His recent work has focused on using mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to unveil the roles of sphingolipids in the development of insulin resistance in domestic animals, and to identify metabolic fingerprints that define normal and pathological trajectories of lipid metabolism during the transition from gestation to lactation in domestic animals and humans. Eduardo is interested in exploring the potential of nutritional manipulation to dairy cow diets to modulate milk's nutraceutical potential for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans.
J. E. Rico, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
W. A. Myers, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
R. Gervais, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC
J. W. McFadden, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Dietary fatty acids (FA) influence the composition of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids, and can modulate energy metabolism. Digestion is a key step regulating the availability of dietary FA. In a 5 × 5 Latin square design, five rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (214 ± 4.9 DIM; 3.2 ± 1.1 parity) were enrolled in a study with each experimental period lasting 6 d. Abomasal infusates consisted of (i) palmitic acid (PA; 98% 16:0 of total fat), (ii) PA + choline chloride (PA+C; 50 g/d choline ion), (iii) PA + L-serine (PA+S; 170 g/d L-serine), (iv) behenic acid (BA; 92% 22:0 of total fat), and (v) a docosahexaenoic acid algal oil (DHA, 47.5% DHA of total fat). Emulsions were formulated to provide 301 g/d of total FA and were balanced to provide a minimum of 40 and 19 g/d of 16:0 and glycerol, respectively. Cows were fed a corn silage-based diet and fed 115% of expected intake. Diet was sampled (d3-6) and composited. Feces were collected every 8 h on d 6-7, resulting in 6 samples per cow per period, to account for diurnal variation. Diet and feces were stored in sealed plastic bags at -20°C until dried. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility, and was estimated as NDF residue after 240 h in vitro fermentation. Fatty acids were analyzed by GLC-FID and grouped by carbon (C) chain-length. Date were analyzed under a mixed model including the effects of period, cow and treatment. Fisher’s LSD mean separation was performed when F-test <0.05. Intake of 22C FA was higher in BA and DHA relative to PA, PA+C, and PA+S, whereas 16C intake was higher in PA, PA+C, and PA+S, relative to BA and DHA (P <0.05). Digestibility of DM was highest PA and DHA and lowest in BA (P <0.05). Digestibility of FA was highest in DHA, intermediate in PA, PA+C, and PA+S, and lowest in the BA treatment (P <0.05). Digestibility of 16C was lowest in BA and highest in PA, whereas 18C digestibility was lowest in BA and highest in DHA treatments (P <0.05). As anticipated, 22C digestibility was highest in DHA relative to PA, PA+C, PA+S, and BA (99% vs. 61, 63, 57, and 58%, respectively, P < 0.01). We conclude that FA chain length and degree of saturation impact FA availability for absorption and may contribute to differences in metabolic use.
Rumen-protected Methionine Product in Lactating Dairy Cows
Presenter: Víctor Sáinz de la Maza i Escolà
Víctor was raised in Lleida, Spain where he recently received a DVM degree and a BS in Animal Science at University of Lleida. In 2017, Víctor won an Erasmus Scholarship at University of Bologna, Italy where he followed the course in Animal Nutrition of Dr. Andrea Piva. Afterwards, he kept working under the Professor guidance to conduct his dissertations focusing on the use of synthetic amino acids in dairy cattle nutrition. Víctor joined the McFadden lab in the summer of 2019 as a prior training to his PhD program in Ruminant nutrition that will start in January 2020 at the University of Bologna. He will spend 6 months in Dr. McFadden’s lab helping on the heat resilience trial in calves and lactating cows.
V. Sainz de la Maza, Department of Animal Production, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
B. Rossi, Vetagro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy
R. Paratte, Vetagro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy
A. Piva, Vetagro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy and and DIMEVET, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell’Emilia, Bologna, Italy,
E. Grilli, DIMEVET, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell’Emilia, Bologna, Italy and Vetagro Inc., Chicago, IL
Methionine is the first limiting amino acid for milk and protein production in lactating dairy cows fed corn-based diets. A field trial was conducted on a commercial farm to evaluate the effect of supplementing a rumen-protected methionine product (Timet®; VETAGRO S.p.A.; Reggio Emilia, Italy) on lactation performance in high-yielding dairy cows. Seventy-three multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4-period switchback design: Control 1 (CTR1, 21-d), Timet 1 (TMT1, 21-d), CTR2 (42-d) and TMT2 (21-d). All the cows that entered the study were between 0 and 120 DIM. Cows were fed a TMR formulated to provide 16.7 % CP, 29% Starch, and 32% NDF with 2793 g/d of MP and 2,93 of Lys:Met. During TMT treatment, Timet® was supplemented 25g/d per head. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk was sampled for protein, fat, and urea every 2 days. Data were analyzed using MIXED model procedures including cow as random effect (JMP pro 13®). Milk yield was affected by period and thus, there was not significant difference between treatments. Milk protein was increased by TMT (3.40%) compared to CTR (3.35%) but not significantly (P>0.05) and milk fat was significantly (P<0.05) increased by TMT (3.75%) compared to CTR (3.66%). In conclusion, addition of Timet® to a corn-based diet increased milk protein and fat concentration.